Grep Linux netstat TCP/IP

Get Detailed Information About Particular IP address Connections Using netstat

netstat command and shell pipe feature can be used to dig out more information about particular IP address connection. You can find out total established connections, closing connection, SYN and FIN bits and much more. You can also display summary statistics for each protocol using netstat.

This is useful to find out if your server is under attack or not. You can also list abusive IP address using this method.
# netstat -nat | awk '{print $6}' | sort | uniq -c | sort -n


1 established)
1 Foreign

Dig out more information about a specific ip address:
# netstat -nat |grep {IP-address} | awk '{print $6}' | sort | uniq -c | sort -n


Busy server can give out more information:
# netstat -nat |grep | awk '{print $6}' | sort | uniq -c | sort -n



Get List Of All Unique IP Address

To print list of all unique IP address connected to server, enter:
# netstat -nat | awk '{ print $5}' | cut -d: -f1 | sed -e '/^$/d' | uniq

To print total of all unique IP address, enter:
# netstat -nat | awk '{ print $5}' | cut -d: -f1 | sed -e '/^$/d' | uniq | wc -l



Find Out If Box is Under DoS Attack or Not

If you think your Linux box is under attack, print out a list of open connections on your box and sorts them by according to IP address, enter:
# netstat -atun | awk '{print $5}' | cut -d: -f1 | sed -e '/^$/d' |sort | uniq -c | sort -n



You can simply block all abusive IPs using iptables or just null route them.

Get Live View of TCP Connections

You can use tcptrack command to display the status of TCP connections that it sees on a given network interface. tcptrack monitors their state and displays information such as state, source/destination addresses and bandwidth usage in a sorted, updated list very much like the top command.

Display Summary Statistics for Each Protocol

Simply use netstat -s:
# netstat -s | less
# netstat -t -s | less
# netstat -u -s | less
# netstat -w -s | less
# netstat -s


88354557 total packets received
0 forwarded
0 incoming packets discarded
88104061 incoming packets delivered
96037391 requests sent out
13 outgoing packets dropped
66 fragments dropped after timeout
295 reassemblies required
106 packets reassembled ok
66 packet reassembles failed
34 fragments failed
18108 ICMP messages received
58 input ICMP message failed.
ICMP input histogram:
destination unreachable: 7173
timeout in transit: 472
redirects: 353
echo requests: 10096
28977 ICMP messages sent
0 ICMP messages failed
ICMP output histogram:
destination unreachable: 18881
echo replies: 10096
1202226 active connections openings
2706802 passive connection openings
7394 failed connection attempts
47018 connection resets received
23 connections established
87975383 segments received
95235730 segments send out
681174 segments retransmited
2044 bad segments received.
80805 resets sent
92689 packets received
14611 packets to unknown port received.
0 packet receive errors
96755 packets sent
48452 invalid SYN cookies received
7357 resets received for embryonic SYN_RECV sockets
43 ICMP packets dropped because they were out-of-window
5 ICMP packets dropped because socket was locked
2672073 TCP sockets finished time wait in fast timer
441 time wait sockets recycled by time stamp
368562 delayed acks sent
430 delayed acks further delayed because of locked socket
Quick ack mode was activated 36127 times
32318597 packets directly queued to recvmsg prequeue.
741479256 packets directly received from backlog
1502338990 packets directly received from prequeue
18343750 packets header predicted
10220683 packets header predicted and directly queued to user
17516622 acknowledgments not containing data received
36549771 predicted acknowledgments
102672 times recovered from packet loss due to fast retransmit
Detected reordering 1596 times using reno fast retransmit
Detected reordering 1 times using time stamp
8 congestion windows fully recovered
32 congestion windows partially recovered using Hoe heuristic
19 congestion windows recovered after partial ack
0 TCP data loss events
39951 timeouts after reno fast retransmit
29653 timeouts in loss state
197005 fast retransmits
186937 retransmits in slow start
131433 other TCP timeouts
TCPRenoRecoveryFail: 20217
147 times receiver scheduled too late for direct processing
29010 connections reset due to unexpected data
365 connections reset due to early user close
6979 connections aborted due to timeout

Display Interface Table

You can easily display dropped and total transmitted packets with netstat for eth0:
# netstat --interfaces eth0


Kernel Interface table
eth0 1500 0 2040929 0 0 0 3850539 0 0 0 BMRU

Other netstat related articles / tips:

  1. Get Information about All Running Services Remotely
  2. Linux / UNIX Find Out What Program / Service is Listening on a Specific TCP Port

Read following man pages for the details:
$ man netstat
$ man cut
$ man awk
$ man sed
$ man grep

Internet Address IP Linux TCP/IP Windows

Text-only “What is my IP Address”

Text-only “whatismyip” address?

Internet Address IP Linux TCP/IP Windows

Get your external IP address – TEXT ONLY

There are a lot of useful services online where you can quickly and easily get your external IP address, however they are almost all laden with a bunch of other crap, like ads and stuff. For a clean, simple text only view of your external IP address go to

I created a shortened URL. . .

Linux TCP/IP

DenyHosts: Remove / Delete an IP address

How do I remove my own home IP address from DenyHosts?

Simply removing your IP from /etc/hosts.deny does not work since DenyHosts keeps track of the attempts in the /usr/share/denyhosts/data directory. In order to remove your IP address you will need to do the following.

Step # 1: Stop DenyHosts

# /etc/init.d/denyhosts stop

Step # 2: Remove Your IP From /etc/hosts.deny

# vi /etc/hosts.deny
Delete your IP address. Save and close the file.

Step # 3: Remove Your IP From /usr/share/denyhosts/data Directory

Cd to /usr/share/denyhosts/data
# cd /usr/share/denyhosts/data

You need to edit the following files using vi and remove the lines containing the IP address. Save the file.

  1. hosts
  2. hosts-restricted
  3. hosts-root
  4. hosts-valid
  5. users-hosts

If you’ve static IP address add to allowed-hosts file. Any IP address that appears in this file will not be blocked by default (consider this as a whilelist):
# echo '' >> allowed-hosts

Step # 4: Start DenyHosts

# /etc/init.d/denyhosts start

Linux Networking TCP/IP Ubuntu

Linux Change MTU Size

How do I change MTU size under Linux?

You need support in both network hardware and card in order to use JumboFrames. If you want to transfer large amounts of data at gigabit speeds, increasing the default MTU size can provide significant performance gains.

Changing the MTU size with ifconfig command

In order to change the MTU size, use /sbin/ifconfig command as follows:

ifconfig ${Interface} mtu ${SIZE} up
ifconfig eth1 mtu 9000 up

Note this will only work if supported by both the network nterface card and the network components such as switch.

Changing the MTU size permanently under CentOS / RHEL / Fedora Linux

Edit /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0, enter
# vi /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0

Add MTU, settings:

Save and close the file. Restart networking:
# service network restart

Note for IPV6 set dedicated MTU as follows:

Changing the MTU size permanently under Debian / Ubuntu Linux

Edit /etc/network/interfaces, enter:
# vi /etc/network/interfaces

Add mtu as follows for required interface:
mtu 9000

Save and close the file. Restart the networking, enter:
# /etc/init.d/networking restart

Changing the MTU size permanently (other Linux distros)

Edit /etc/rc.local and add the following line:

/sbin/ifconfig eth1 mtu 9000 up
Grep grep Examples Linux TCP/IP Ubuntu

Detecting listening network ports on Linux

It is importand to check for ports that are open and there are not needed.

For a list of network ports that are open you can use the following commands:

netstat -tulp or
lsof -i -n | egrep ‘COMMAND|LISTEN|UDP’

Or, you are not limited to netstat or lsof but you can always use a port scanner, telnet or nc to list open/close ports.

Linux Security TCP/IP

Linux Kernel /etc/sysctl.conf Security Hardening

How do I set advanced security options of the TCP/IP stack and virtual memory to improve security and performance of my system? How do I configure Linux kernel to prevent certain kinds of attacks using /etc/sysctl.conf? How do I set Linux kernel parameters?

sysctl is an interface that allows you to make changes to a running Linux kernel. With /etc/sysctl.conf you can configure various Linux networking and system settings such as:

  1. Limit network-transmitted configuration for IPv4
  2. Limit network-transmitted configuration for IPv6
  3. Turn on execshield protection
  4. Prevent against the common ‘syn flood attack’
  5. Turn on source IP address verification
  6. Prevents a cracker from using a spoofing attack against the IP address of the server.
  7. Logs several types of suspicious packets, such as spoofed packets, source-routed packets, and redirects.

sysctl command

The sysctl command is used to modify kernel parameters at runtime. /etc/sysctl.conf is a text file containing sysctl values to be read in and set by sysct at boot time. To view current values, enter:
# sysctl -a
# sysctl -A
# sysctl mib
# sysctl net.ipv4.conf.all.rp_filter

To load settings, enter:
# sysctl -p

Sample /etc/sysctl.conf

Edit /etc/sysctl.conf and update it as follows. The file is documented with comments. However, I recommend reading the official Linux kernel sysctl tuning help file (see below):

# The following is suitable for dedicated web server, mail, ftp server etc.
# ---------------------------------------
# BOOLEAN Values:
# a) 0 (zero) - disabled / no / false
# b) Non zero - enabled / yes / true
# --------------------------------------
# Controls IP packet forwarding
net.ipv4.ip_forward = 0
# Controls source route verification
net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter = 1
# Do not accept source routing
net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_source_route = 0
# Controls the System Request debugging functionality of the kernel
kernel.sysrq = 0
# Controls whether core dumps will append the PID to the core filename
# Useful for debugging multi-threaded applications
kernel.core_uses_pid = 1
# Controls the use of TCP syncookies
#net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_synack_retries = 2
########## IPv4 networking start ##############
# Send redirects, if router, but this is just server
net.ipv4.conf.all.send_redirects = 0
net.ipv4.conf.default.send_redirects = 0
# Accept packets with SRR option? No
net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_source_route = 0
# Accept Redirects? No, this is not router
net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_redirects = 0
net.ipv4.conf.all.secure_redirects = 0
# Log packets with impossible addresses to kernel log? yes
net.ipv4.conf.all.log_martians = 1
net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_source_route = 0
net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_redirects = 0
net.ipv4.conf.default.secure_redirects = 0
# Ignore all ICMP ECHO and TIMESTAMP requests sent to it via broadcast/multicast
net.ipv4.icmp_echo_ignore_broadcasts = 1
# Prevent against the common 'syn flood attack'
net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies = 1
# Enable source validation by reversed path, as specified in RFC1812
net.ipv4.conf.all.rp_filter = 1
net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter = 1
########## IPv6 networking start ##############
# Number of Router Solicitations to send until assuming no routers are present.
# This is host and not router
net.ipv6.conf.default.router_solicitations = 0
# Accept Router Preference in RA?
net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_ra_rtr_pref = 0
# Learn Prefix Information in Router Advertisement
net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_ra_pinfo = 0
# Setting controls whether the system will accept Hop Limit settings from a router advertisement
net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_ra_defrtr = 0
#router advertisements can cause the system to assign a global unicast address to an interface
net.ipv6.conf.default.autoconf = 0
#how many neighbor solicitations to send out per address?
net.ipv6.conf.default.dad_transmits = 0
# How many global unicast IPv6 addresses can be assigned to each interface?
net.ipv6.conf.default.max_addresses = 1
########## IPv6 networking ends ##############
#Enable ExecShield protection
kernel.exec-shield = 1
kernel.randomize_va_space = 1
# TCP and memory optimization
# increase TCP max buffer size setable using setsockopt()
#net.ipv4.tcp_rmem = 4096 87380 8388608
#net.ipv4.tcp_wmem = 4096 87380 8388608
# increase Linux auto tuning TCP buffer limits
#net.core.rmem_max = 8388608
#net.core.wmem_max = 8388608
#net.core.netdev_max_backlog = 5000
#net.ipv4.tcp_window_scaling = 1
# increase system file descriptor limit
fs.file-max = 65535
#Allow for more PIDs
kernel.pid_max = 65536
#Increase system IP port limits
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 2000 65000