Recover Lost Windows Admin Password

Forgot your Windows NT/2k/XP/Vista admin password?

Linux TCP/IP

DenyHosts: Remove / Delete an IP address

How do I remove my own home IP address from DenyHosts?

Simply removing your IP from /etc/hosts.deny does not work since DenyHosts keeps track of the attempts in the /usr/share/denyhosts/data directory. In order to remove your IP address you will need to do the following.

Step # 1: Stop DenyHosts

# /etc/init.d/denyhosts stop

Step # 2: Remove Your IP From /etc/hosts.deny

# vi /etc/hosts.deny
Delete your IP address. Save and close the file.

Step # 3: Remove Your IP From /usr/share/denyhosts/data Directory

Cd to /usr/share/denyhosts/data
# cd /usr/share/denyhosts/data

You need to edit the following files using vi and remove the lines containing the IP address. Save the file.

  1. hosts
  2. hosts-restricted
  3. hosts-root
  4. hosts-valid
  5. users-hosts

If you’ve static IP address add to allowed-hosts file. Any IP address that appears in this file will not be blocked by default (consider this as a whilelist):
# echo '' >> allowed-hosts

Step # 4: Start DenyHosts

# /etc/init.d/denyhosts start

Linux Windows

Hide your computer downloads in plain sight with this UPS Hack!

Pictures, movies, music, files, whatever! Nobody will even know it’s there. Not your kids, your wife, a burglar – not even the… RIAA!

UPS Hack! Hide…The best bloopers are here

CDN CDN Comparison

List Of Stand Alone CDNs and Telcos/Carriers Offering CDN Services

The CDN space is growing tremendously, both in overall revenue and competition.

According to, “Video CDN Revenue Will Grow to Over $1.4 Billion by 2012:”

The preliminary data shows that the worldwide video CDN revenue will be a little more than $400 million in 2008, increasing at a Compound Annual Growth Rate [CAGR] of more than 30%. As the slide below shows, we expect the worldwide video CDN revenue to grow to more than $1.4 billion by 2012.

These numbers are very specific to revenue obtained for video delivery services by CDNs and does not include revenue from P2P based networks or any type of content outside of video. While the report, when released, will also break out P2P based revenue and include additional types of content like gaming, these numbers are for video delivery only. To obtain these numbers, we spoke to every major CDN provider in North America, Europe and Asia and obtained revenue numbers or guidance, from nearly every one, on what percentage of their revenue came from just video and from what region.

Here is a list of CDNs in the market, broken down between pure-play CDNs versus non pure-play vendors like carriers and telcos.

Pure-Play CDNs

Non Pure-Play CDNs
CLI Command Line Language Bar Linux regsvr32.exe Unistall Windows

Uninstall the Annoying Windows Language Bar from the Windows Command Line

The lanuage bar can be uninstalled / removed / deleted / disabled completely by running the following command:

regsvr32.exe /u /s msutb.dll

Blackberry cell phone email IM iPhone Linux PDA SMS text message Windows

Top 50 Text Terms Used in Business

AFAIC As Far As I’m Concerned
ASAP As Soon As Possible
BHAG Big Hairy Audacious Goal
BOHICA Bend Over Here It Comes Again
CLM Career Limiting Move
CYA Cover Your Ass -or- See Ya
DD Due Diligence
DQYDJ Don’t Quit Your Day Job
DRIB Don’t Read If Busy
EOD End Of Day -or- End Of Discussion
EOM End Of Message
EOT End Of Thread (meaning: end of discussion)
ESO Equipment Smarter than Operator
FRED F***ing Ridiculous Electronic Device
FUBAR F***ed Up Beyond All Recognition
FYI For Your Information
GMTA Great Minds Think Alike
HIOOC Help, I’m Out Of Coffee
IAITS It’s All In The Subject
IANAL I Am Not A Lawyer
KISS Keep It Simple Stupid
LOPSOD Long On Promises, Short On Delivery
MOTD Message Of The Day
MTFBWY May The Force Be With You
MYOB Mind Your Own Business
NRN No Reply Necessary
NSFW Not Safe For Work
NWR Not Work Related
OTP On The Phone
P&C Private & Confidential
PDOMA Pulled Directly Out Of My Ass
PEBCAK Problem Exists Between Chair And Keyboard
PITA Pain In The Ass
QQ Quick Question -or- Cry More
RFD Request For Discussion
RFP Request For Proposal
SBUG Small Bald Unaudacious Goal
SME Subject Matter Expert
SNAFU Situation Normal, All F***ed Up
SSDD Same Sh** Different Day
STD Seal The Deal -or- Sexually Transmitted Disease
SWAG Scientific Wild Ass Guess -and- SoftWare And Giveaways
TBA To Be Advised
TBD To Be Determined
TWIMC To Whom It May Concern
TIA Thanks In Advance
WIIFM What’s In It For Me
WOMBAT Waste Of Money, Brains And Time
WTG Way To Go
YW You’re Welcome
Amazon Web Services AWS EC2 Linux Windows

View EC2 Instances via Command Line Using ec2-describe-instances

Running ec2-describe-instances from the command line where you have AWS developer tools installed will display information about running instances.

To view instances simply run ec2-describe-instances

To view detailed help information run ec2-describe-instances –help
     ec2din (ec2-describe-instances)
     Any command option/parameter may be passed a value of ‘-‘ to indicate
     that values for that option should be read from stdin.
     List and describe your instances
     The INSTANCE parameter is the instance ID(s) to describe.
     If unspecified all your instances will be returned.


     -K, –private-key KEY
          Specify KEY as the private key to use. Defaults to the value of the
          EC2_PRIVATE_KEY environment variable (if set). Overrides the default.

     -C, –cert CERT
          Specify CERT as the X509 certificate to use. Defaults to the value
          of the EC2_CERT environment variable (if set). Overrides the default.

     -U, –url URL
          Specify URL as the web service URL to use. Defaults to the value of
          ‘’ or to that of the EC2_URL environment
          variable (if set). Overrides the default.

     –region REGION
          Specify REGION as the web service region to use.
          This option will override the URL specified by the “-U URL” option and EC2_URL environment variable.

     -v, –verbose
          Verbose output.

     -?, –help
          Display this help.

     -H, –headers
          Display column headers.

          Display additional debugging information.

          Indicate empty fields.

     –connection-timeout TIMEOUT
          Specify a connection timeout TIMEOUT (in seconds).

     –request-timeout TIMEOUT
          Specify a request timeout TIMEOUT (in seconds).

See Installing EC2 Command Line Tools on Windows.
Linux Security

Linux: Force Users To Change Their Passwords Upon First Login

How can I force my Linux users to change their passwords upon the first login under CentOS / Debian Linux?

You can use any one of the following command to change user passwords upon the first login:

  • usermod command – Modify various user account properties including user password expiry information.


  • chage command – Change user password expiry information

Task: Use chage command to force users to chage their password upon first login

Use the following syntax: chage -d 0 <user-name>

chage -d 0 bubba

  • -d 0 : Set the number of days since January 1st, 1970 when the password was last changed. The date may also be expressed in the format YYYY-MM-DD. By setting it to zero, you are going to force user to change password upon first login.
Linux Ntbackup Windows

Ntbackup command line parameters in Windows Server 2003

You can perform backup operations from the command prompt or from a batch file by using the ntbackup backup command followed by various parameters. You can access only the backup option from the command prompt. To restore files, use the Backup and Restore Wizard.

The ntbackup command uses the following syntax (see explanation of parameters below):

ntbackup backup [systemstate] “@FileName.bks” /J {“JobName”} [/P {“PoolName”}] [/G {“GUIDName”}] [/T { “TapeName”}] [/N {“MediaName”}] [/F {“FileName”}] [/D {“SetDescription”}] [/DS {“ServerName”}] [/IS {“ServerName”}] [/A] [/FU] [/V:{yes | no}] [/R:{yes | no}] [/L:{f | s | n}] [/M {BackupType}] [/RS:{yes | no}] [/HC:{on | off}] [/SNAP:{on | off}]

The following examples show how to use the ntbackup command to back up files and folders from the command line or by using a batch file. Note that if you do not specify an option, it applies the settings that you set in the graphical version of the backup program.

Example 1

ntbackup backup \MyServerc$ /m normal /j “Backup Job 1” /p “Backup” /n “Command Line Backup 1” /d “Command Line Functionality” /v:yes /r:no /l:s /rs:no /hc:on

This example creates a normal backup of the remote share \MyServerc$ and names it “Backup Job 1”. It pulls a tape from the Backup media pool, and names the tape “Command Line Backup 1.” You can substitute “Command Line Functionality” in the command with the actual description of your backup. This backup is verified after the backup job is complete. Access is not restricted to the owner or the administrator, and the logging level is set to “summary only.” Remote Storage data is not backed up, and hardware compression is enabled.

Example 2

ntbackup backup d: /j “Backup Job 2” /a /t “Command Line Backup 1” /m copy

This example generates a copy backup of the local drive D: and names the backup “Backup Job 2”. The backed up files and folders are added to the tape that is named “Command Line Backup 1.”

Example 3

ntbackup backup “@C:Program FilesWindows NTntbackupdatacommandline.bks” /j “Backup Job 3” /t “Command Line Backup 1” /n “Command Line Backup 2”

This example generates the type of backup that you specified in the graphical version of the Backup program. To specify the files that are backed up, this example uses the “Commandline.bks” backup selection file located in the C:Program FilesWindows NTNtbackupData folder. The backup job is named “Backup Job 3”. It overwrites the tape that is named “Command Line Backup 1” with the new name “Command Line Backup 2.”

Example 4

The following three commands perform a backup to a file from the command line:

ntbackup backup \MyServerd$ /j “Command Line Backup 4” /f “D:backup.bkf”

ntbackup backup \MyServerd$ /j “Command Line Backup 5” /f “D:backup.bkf” /a

ntbackup backup \MyServerd$ /j “Command Line Backup 6” /f “D:backup.bkf”

The first example shows how to backup \MyServerd$ to the file D:Backup.bkf.  The second example shows how to append the same backup to the same file.  The third example shows how to overwrite the file with the same backup.

In all three examples, you can substitute a complete UNC name for the drive letter. For example, instead of d:backup.bkf, you can use \MyServerd$backup.bkf as the backup destination.

All three examples use the Backup program’s default values for the backup type, verification setting, logging level, hardware compression, and any other restrictions.

To start the graphical version of the Backup program, click Start, point to All Programs, point to Accessories, point to System Tools, and then click Backup.

Ntbackup Parameters
Switch: systemstate
Description: Specifies that you want to back up the System State data. When you select this option, the backup type will be forced to normal or copy.

Switch: @FileName.bks
Description: Specifies the name of the backup selection file (.bks file) to be used for this backup operation. The at (@) character must come before the name of the backup selection file. A backup selection file contains information about the files and folders you have selected for backup. You have to create the file using the graphical user interface (GUI) version of Backup.

Switch: /J {“JobName”}
Description: Specifies the Backup Job to be used in the backup report. The Backup Job generally describes the files and folders you are backing up in the current backup job.

Switch: /P {“PoolName”}
Description: Specifies the media pool where you want to use media. This is generally a subpool of the Backup media pool, such as 4mm DDS. If you select this you cannot use the /A, /G, /F, or /T command-line options.

Switch: /G {“GUIDName”}
Description: Overwrites or appends to this tape. Do not use this switch in conjunction with /P.

Switch: /T {“TapeName”}
Description: Overwrites or appends to this tape. Do not use this switch in conjunction with /P.

Switch: /N {“MediaName”}
Description: Specifies the new tape name. You must not use /A with this switch.

Switch: /F {“FileName”}
Description: Logical disk path and file name. You must not use the following switches with this

Switch: /P /G /T

Switch: /D {“SetDescription”}
Description: Specifies a label for each backup set.

Switch: /DS {“ServerName”}
Description: Backs up the directory service file for the specified Microsoft Exchange server.
Exchange version: The /DS switch works only with Microsoft Exchange Server 5.5. The /DS switch does not work with Microsoft Exchange 2000 Server or Microsoft Exchange Server 2003.

Switch: /IS {“ServerName”}
Description: Backs up the Information Store file for the specified Microsoft Exchange server.
Exchange version: The /IS switch works only with Microsoft Exchange Server 5.5. The /IS switch does not work with Microsoft Exchange 2000 Server or Microsoft Exchange Server 2003.

Switch: /A
Description: Performs an append operation. Either /G or /T must be used in conjunction with this switch. Do not use this switch in conjunction with /P.

Switch: /FU
Description: Enables a “file unbuffered” setting to bypass the cache manager. This change provides a number of benefits during the disk-to-disk backup process:

  • Sustainable throughput over time
  • Reduction in processor utilization: on average, peak utilization is reduced to 30 percent
  • Elimination of impacts to the system process during the backup job

Note The /FU switch is available only in the revised version of Ntbackup.exe that is included with Windows Server Service Pack 1. You can also obtain this revised version by downloading it as a hotfix. To do this, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
839272  ( ) System performance is negatively affected when Ntbackup.exe writes to a destination .bkf file

Switch: /V:{yes | no}
Description: Verifies the data after the backup is complete.

Switch: /R:{yes | no}
Description: Restricts access to this tape to the owner or members of the Administrators group.

Switch: /L:{f | s | n}
Description: Specifies the type of log file: f=full, s=summary, n=none (no log file is created).

Switch: /M {BackupType}
Description: Specifies the backup type. It must be one of the following: normal, copy, differential, incremental, or daily.

Switch: /RS:{yes | no}
Description: Backs up the migrated data files located in Remote Storage. You do not have to use the /RS command-line option to back up the local Removable Storage database (that contains the Remote Description: Storage placeholder files. When you back up the %Systemroot% folder, Backup automatically backs up the Removable Storage database also.

Switch: /HC:{on | off}
Description: Uses hardware compression, if available, on the tape drive.

Switch: /SNAP:{on | off}
Description: Specifies whether the backup must use a volume shadow copy.

Note The SNAP switch is ignored in Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 1 (SP1) and in later versions.

Switch: /M {BackupType}
Description: Specifies the backup type. It must be one of the following: normal, copy, differential, incremental, or daily.

Switch: /?
Description: Displays help at the command prompt.

Aircrack-ng BackTrack Linux WGET

Keeping Backtrack up-to-date

Updating & Upgrading Backtrack

/usr/bin/apt-get -y update
/usr/bin/apt-get -y upgrade

To download and install all new updates, run

apt­-get dist-­upgrade

The first time you run the apt-get update, you may get an error “GPG error : intrpid Release: The following signatures couln’t be verified because the public key…”

Quick fix :

sudo apt-key add public.gpg
rm public.gpg

Run apt-get update again and it should work.

Upgrading the distro to the lastest version :

apt-get update && apt-get dist-upgrade -y

Warning : an “upgrade”  in BT4Beta will also upgrade KDE to 3.5.. If KDE is not working anymore after update/upgrade  ?  (a.k.a. ‘startx’ does not seem to work) :

root@bt:~# cd /etc/alternatives/
root@bt:/etc/alternatives# mv x-session-manager x-session-manager-broken
root@bt:/etc/alternatives# ln -s /opt/kde3/bin/startkde x-session-manager
root@bt:/etc/alternatives# startx

 Updating security components

/pentest/exploits/ -i

First update fast-track, then update other individual components (Metasploit, Aircrack, nikto, etc; or choose ‘9’ to update all)
If updating nikto doesn’t work :

Updating Nikto...
cd: 1: can't cd to /pentest/scanners/nikto/
/bin/sh: ./ not found

Fix :

root@bt:~# mkdir /pentest/scanners/nikto/
root@bt:~# ln -s /usr/bin/nikto /pentest/scanners/nikto/
root@bt:/pentest/exploits/~# ./fast-track -c 1 2